Inflammation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Among the resident population of cells in the brain, astroglia have been suggested to actively participate in the induction and regulation of neuroinflammation by controlling the secretion of local mediators. However, the initial cellular mechanisms by which astrocytes react to pro-inflammatory molecules are still unclear. our study identified mitochondia as high sensitive organelles that rapidly respond to inflammatory stimuly. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that mitochondrial morphology, dynamics and motility are drastically altered upon inflammation, resulting in perinuclear clustering of mitochondria. These mitochondrial rearrangements are accompanied by an increased formation of reactive oxygen species and a recruitment of autophagic vacuoles. 24 to 48 hours after the acute inflammatory stimulus, however, the mitochondrial network is re-established. Strikingly, the recovery of a tubular mitochondrial network is abolished in astrocytes with a defective autophagic response, indicating that activation of autophagy is required to restore mitochondrial dynamics. By employing co-cultivation assays we observed that primary cortical neurons undergo degeneration in the presence of inflamed astrocytes. However, this effect was not observed when the primary neurons were grown in conditioned medium derived from inflamed astrocytes, suggesting that a direct contact between astrocytes and neurons mediates neuronal dysfunction upon inflammation. Our results suggest that astrocytes react to inflammatory stimuli by transiently rearranging their mitochondria, a process that involves the autophagic machinery.

Acute inflammation causes morphological and functional rearrangements of mitochondia in astrocytes

ANGELONI, CRISTINA;HRELIA, SILVANA
2012

Abstract

Inflammation is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Among the resident population of cells in the brain, astroglia have been suggested to actively participate in the induction and regulation of neuroinflammation by controlling the secretion of local mediators. However, the initial cellular mechanisms by which astrocytes react to pro-inflammatory molecules are still unclear. our study identified mitochondia as high sensitive organelles that rapidly respond to inflammatory stimuly. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that mitochondrial morphology, dynamics and motility are drastically altered upon inflammation, resulting in perinuclear clustering of mitochondria. These mitochondrial rearrangements are accompanied by an increased formation of reactive oxygen species and a recruitment of autophagic vacuoles. 24 to 48 hours after the acute inflammatory stimulus, however, the mitochondrial network is re-established. Strikingly, the recovery of a tubular mitochondrial network is abolished in astrocytes with a defective autophagic response, indicating that activation of autophagy is required to restore mitochondrial dynamics. By employing co-cultivation assays we observed that primary cortical neurons undergo degeneration in the presence of inflamed astrocytes. However, this effect was not observed when the primary neurons were grown in conditioned medium derived from inflamed astrocytes, suggesting that a direct contact between astrocytes and neurons mediates neuronal dysfunction upon inflammation. Our results suggest that astrocytes react to inflammatory stimuli by transiently rearranging their mitochondria, a process that involves the autophagic machinery.
Keystone Symposia on Molecular and Cellular Biology. Mitochondrial dynamics and Function
99
99
Motori E.; Bergami M.; Angeloni C.; Winklhofer K.F.; Hrelia S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11585/123626
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